Multizone Exposure Modeling: Historical Use of Vinyl Chloride in Hairspray
- Challenge: Vinyl Chloride (VC) was used as a propellant in certain aerosol hairspray products in the U.S. from 1967 to 1973. Cardno ChemRisk was to estimate the potential airborne VC concentrations to which salon workers may have been exposed and to determine if they were sufficient to increase the risk for Hepatic Angiosarcoma (HAS) in these workers.
- Approach: Cardno ChemRisk reviewed the historical literature and used multizone industrial hygiene indoor air models to estimate airborne VC concentrations in residential, small, medium and large salons. A Monte Carlo uncertainty and sensitivity analysis was conducted to characterize the range of possible results and understand the magnitude of effect of the various parameters.
- Findings: Estimated lifetime doses were below the threshold dose for HAS reported in the published literature, even under the assumption that all hairspray products used from 1967 to 1973 contained VC.
- Value: Results of the analysis were published in the peer-reviewed journal Risk Analysis*, eliminating the need to perform costly repeat analyses of this historical exposure scenario.
- The Use of Multizone Models to Estimate an Airborne Chemical Contaminant Generation and Decay Profile: Occupational Exposures of Hairdressers to Vinyl Chloride in Hairspray During the 1960s and 1970