For case studies that demonstrate how Cardno ChemRisk can apply its risk assessment experience and nanotechnology knowledge to resolve nano-related issues across industries, please see Product Sustainability and Occupational Health and Safety.
A few nano-specific case studies are as follows:
- Method Development for Sampling and Analysis of Nanoparticles in Mixed Particle Environments
Cardno ChemRisk, in collaboration with academic scientists, is developing a sampling and analytical approach to characterize, quantify and source apportion airborne nanoparticles generated in environments that have a variety of particle sources. Sophisticated sampling instrumentation and analytical methods (e.g. low pressure impactor and transmission electron microscopy) are being used to quantify the concentration and size distribution of nanoparticles or nanostructured particles generated during industrial processes, as well as to differentiate emitted particles from industrial versus incidental sources. This research will provide the industry with a methodology to identify and characterize occupational exposures to nanoparticles in a mixed source environment.
- Generic Exposure Scenario Development and Sampling Plan
Cardno ChemRisk was asked to prepare a literature review, generic exposure assessment and risk ranking tool on behalf of a consortium of companies that use dispersions containing nano-sized particles in their manufacturing process. The project involved an assessment of the lifecycle stages of the material and a review of exposure monitoring approaches. Additionally, the approaches currently available for modeling inhalation exposures were reviewed. The work will provide a technical basis for the design strategy of a focused exposure simulation study to be conducted in a controlled environment.
- Evaluation of Toxicity of Metal Nanoparticles
Cardno ChemRisk was asked to evaluate the potential toxicity of metal nanoparticles released from medical devices, as the health risk is currently unknown. To better understand the potential health risks, if any, Cardno ChemRisk conducted an extensive literature review assessing the in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicty, genotoxicity and immunotoxicty of metal nanoparticles. The assessment will provide a basis for understanding the current state-of-the-science and identifying data gaps and research needs.
- State-of-the-Science Assessment of Nanomaterials in the Tire Industry
On behalf of an international consortium of tire manufacturers, Cardno ChemRisk reviewed the literature on issues related to the potential human health and environmental risks associated with nanostructured materials. The project focused on human health toxicity, ecotoxicity, occupational exposures and exposure monitoring, best practices recommendations, risk assessment, and risk management for minimizing exposures and risks to nanomaterials in occupational settings. Cardno ChemRisk reviewed nearly 250 papers in eight languages and found that literature indicates there is still much uncertainty related to the human health and environmental risk of nanomaterials. Based on these findings, Cardno ChemRisk developed recommendations for industry to remain proactive in risk management as it relates to the current and future use of nanomaterials.
A summary of the findings from this literature review can be found at: http://www.wbcsd.org/work-program/sector-projects/tires/nanomaterials.aspx
See details for more information about this topic.
- Stakeholder Mapping of International Nanomaterials Regulation
Cardno ChemRisk was retained to identify the key stakeholders likely impacted by potential future international regulation of nanomaterials. The project involved a global search for key regulators, NGOs, research groups and other stakeholders in an effort to identify high priority stakeholders and potential future partnerships for projects concerning the development of new nanomaterials.