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Sodium Hypochlorite and Disinfection ByproductsiStock_000008205451XSmall

Chlorinated cleaning products are widely used in industrial/professional and consumer settings and released to wastewater systems which may reach local aquatic habitats. Cardno ChemRisk evaluated the potential toxicity to humans and environmental receptors following use of sodium hypochlorite as a disinfectant.  Byproducts from the use of sodium hypochlorite were evaluated following a “down the drain” scenario to assess drinking water exposure. We calculated PEC and PNECs for various species (algae, daphnia, fish, earthworm) and media (water, sediment, soil) for sodium hypochlorite and over 20 disinfection byproducts, using toxicity testing data and U.S. EPA and EU models (EUSES and EFAST).  Human health screening limits were also derived from Maximum Contaminant Limits (MCLs) and other sources.

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VOC Exposure from Solvents

VOC solvents from brake cleaner

Petroleum-based cleaning solvents contain Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) which may be released into the air during cleaning tasks. Because some VOCs such as toluene and xylenes are associated with adverse health effects, Cardno ChemRisk was asked to estimate the concentrations of these chemicals under various conditions of use including well-ventilated and non-ventilated indoor settings. The concentrations were estimated using E-Fast and MCCEM mathematical models and compared to applicable health benchmarks. See the TERA websites for toluene and xylene for more information.






Evaluation of Acrylate/Methacrylate Polymers in Floor Care ProductsiStock_000013534164XSmall

Some amount of residual monomer is contained in the acrylate/methacrylate polymers within various floor care products such as polishes and waxes. Cardno ChemRisk was asked to develop a reference scenario for floor polishing as part of a larger project to develop a database of exposure parameters for use in conjunction with various reference scenarios that would help estimate potential monomer exposures to end-users. To construct the reference scenario, Cardno ChemRisk reviewed the published and gray literature regarding floor polishing activities and identified the relevant parameters for estimating exposures to the residual monomers.

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