The Cardno ChemRisk View
Cardno ChemRisk staff across the country celebrated Pi Day (March 14, 2017) while enjoying slices of pie and conversations about mathematics. Pi Day is an annual, worldwide celebration of the mathematical constant pi and is observed on March 14th since pi is approximately equal to 3.14 (out to three significant figures). Pi is the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter, and it is commonly represented in mathematics by the greek letter π. Pi is the same value for all circles of any size, has been calculated to over one trillion digits beyond its decimal point, and will continue infinitely without repetition or pattern (as it is an irrational and transcendental number). To learn more facts about pi or Pi Day, please visit: http://www.piday.org/....
Perhaps overshadowed by the publicity surrounding the aforementioned issues, last week the league approved several new rule changes for the upcoming 2016 season, many of which are intended to protect players from injury. One noteworthy change will move touchbacks from the 20- to the 25-yard line. This rule is intended to protect players by discouraging returns made during kickoffs, plays that have especially high injury rates. Our recent study of the effects of the NFL’s 2011 amendments to the Free Kick rule, changes that were similarly aimed at reducing the incidence of injuries during kickoffs, demonstrated that almost all of the positive effects of the rule changes were attributable to a decrease in active gameplay rather than to safer gameplay (see abstract here). We additionally showed that, though kickoff injury rates decreased, the types of injuries suffered, including those to the head, did not significantly change. Our study highlights the need for detailed assessments of injury prevention interventions to understand exactly how they influence injuries and why.
Furthermore, additional research into the mechanisms of and risk factors for sports injuries, particularly those that can lead to long-term disability, will be key to their prevention. The need for the rapid collection and synthesis of such information has become critical to the viability of the game of football. Our company’s collective expertise in program evaluation, risk assessment, study design, and data analysis can help organizations maximize the effectiveness of their injury prevention strategies, conduct high-quality research, and effectively disseminate findings. For more information about our work in this area, please contact Dr. Peter Ruestow.
There has been research showing the presence of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in chocolate since 2001, although no evidence of harm from its consumption has been reported. For example, As You Sow, a consumer health protection organization, recently performed laboratory testing to measure levels of Pb and Cd on 50 different chocolate products available at retailers across California. The organization reported that 35 of the 50 chocolate products contained measurable levels of Pb and/or Cd. However, one should note that the presence of these metals in a food product alone is not sufficient to evaluate potential risks to consumers. The scientists at Cardno-ChemRisk presented work entitled “An exposure and health risk assessment of lead (Pb) in chocolate” at the annual Society of Toxicology meeting in New Orleans last week. To assess whether the ingestion of Pb-containing chocolate could pose a health risk to adults and children, our scientists used the EPA’s Adult Lead Methodology (ALM) and Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) models to predict the blood Pb levels (BLLs) of adults and children (aged 1-7) ingesting various amount of chocolate on a daily basis for 1 year. The results of this analysis demonstrated that in all cases, background Pb exposure was the primary contributor to estimated BLLs in children and adults, and Pb exposure from chocolate did not significantly increase estimated BLLs. Our findings indicate that simply reporting the Pb content of a chocolate product is not sufficient to evaluate health risk; the health risks of Pb in chocolate should be evaluated in the context of estimated background exposures using predictive blood Pb models. The SOT abstract of “An exposure and health risk assessment of lead (Pb) in chocolate” can be found here, along with the other abstracts that our staff presented. For further information, please contact Matt Abramson....
As in previous years, a group of researchers from Cardno ChemRisk will attend the 2016 Society of Toxicology's Annual Meeting in New Orleans from March 13-17. At SOT, we will present recent research during posters and presentations.
Between today and the start of the conference, the Cardno ChemRisk View will feature a series of presentations, as described by staff (you can read the 2015 entries here and here). First up is Lindsey Garnick from our San Francisco office: