Vinaora Nivo Slider

The Cardno ChemRisk View

  • Home
    Home This is where you can find all the blog posts throughout the site.
  • Categories
    Categories Displays a list of categories from this blog.
  • Tags
    Tags Displays a list of tags that have been used in the blog.
  • Bloggers
    Bloggers Search for your favorite blogger from this site.
  • Archives
    Archives Contains a list of blog posts that were created previously.
  • Login
    Login Login form
Subscribe to this list via RSS Blog posts tagged in Alcohol
Posted by on in Centers of Excellence
Alcohol metabolism, impairment, and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) has been an active scientific research area for well over a century (Nicloux 1899, Hamil 1910, Widmark, 1932). Research by The American Medical Association (AMA) and the National Safety Council (NSC) prompted the establishment of the first commonly used legal limit of 0.15% BAC for driving in 1983. Since then, BAC determination has been a staple in forensic toxicology; however, its application is often limited to solely determining an individual’s state of inebriation. A 2016 study by Cardno ChemRisk scientists evaluated the best practices for determining a person’s BAC at specific time-points following alcohol ingestion, and proposed a novel model to determine post-mortem alcohol generation (Cowan et al. 2016).

Although alcohol metabolism is well studied, information regarding its interaction with opioids is relatively limited. The “Opioid Crisis” has garnered much attention recently; increased prescription of opioid pain relievers in the late 1990s based on non-addictive claims by the pharmaceutical industry led to widespread misuse and abuse of these medications (NIDA 2017). The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) described this trend as a “national crisis”: the misuse and addiction to opioids has caused more than 90 deaths per day, causing a serious public health concern (NIDA 2017). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and others have described the increased prevalence of opioid-related deaths involving alcohol (Gomes et al. 2017; Jones et al. 2014). Both Gomes et al. (2017) and Jones et al. (2014) report that approximately one in five opioid fatalities involve alcohol.

The Federal Drug Administration (FDA) warns of serious risks and death when opioids and alcohol are consumed concurrently (FDA 2016). Symptoms of opioid and alcohol interaction are often described as central nervous system (CNS) depression, including dizziness or lightheadedness, extreme sleepiness, slowed or difficult breathing, or unresponsiveness (FDA 2016; Mozayani and Raymon 2004). Although some researchers have expressed interest in defining this interaction quantitatively, few have reported definitive results (Cushman et al. 1987; Gudin et al. 2013). Additional research to better define this interaction has become both a priority and a necessity in light of the recent crisis.

Cardno ChemRisk’s team of toxicologists and health risk assessment professionals have conducted research into the toxicology and kinetics of alcohol in the body following ingestion, and are currently conducting research on opioid and alcohol interactions, as well as opioid impact on BAC. If you would like to learn more about our areas of expertise in drug and alcohol pharmacokinetics and forensic toxicology, please contact Dr. Ernest Fung.
Hits: 1169
Rate this blog entry:

Posted by on in Centers of Excellence

Posted on behalf of Josh Maskrey.

Continue reading
Hits: 1265
Rate this blog entry:

The Cardno ChemRisk View

We're glad you decided to check us out.

Cardno ChemRisk is a respected scientific consulting firm headquartered in San Francisco with locations and consultants across the U.S. While our website provides a formal look at our capabilities, the Cardno ChemRisk View provides an informal voice too. Various Cardno ChemRisk consultants will be sharing news and views about current trends, happenings and methodologies in the industry. We’ll also highlight activities of interest at Cardno ChemRisk, within confidentiality restrictions of course.

The intent is to keep you informed and enable productive conversations, so please join in and get to know our staff and what makes our people unique. We are enthusiastic about the blogging experience and hope you will return often to learn and share. Stay tuned by subscribing to our blog or clicking on the RSS feed.